www.iasinsights.in ; www.iasgyaan.com posts about Snippets of Art & Culture for prelims quick revision. It does not cover the whole chapter.Going through complete lesson is mandatory.
Art & Culture
- Bhimbetka, Jogimara, Adamgarh, Mirzapur, Kupagallu.
- Rock Painting
- Depiction of hunting and animal scenes, also have some social scenes.
- This period mainly sees the use of Red color.
- Ajanta-Ellora (Maharashtra), Bagh (M.P.) Sittanavasal (T.N.)
- The wall of the caves have both murals and fresco paintings i.e., painted on wet plaster. They use tempera style, i.e., use of pigments.
- Buddhist and Hindu religions and mythology were themes. Important among them are Dieing Princes, Mother and child (all at Ajanta)
- At Sittanavasal, the theme is jaina religion
- In Bengal
- Illustrations on Palm leaf and paper manuscripts and on the wooden covers.
- Inspired by Vajrayana school of Buddhism
- In Vijayanagar
- On temple ceilings
- Characterized by earth stones and absence of blue color.
- In Mewar of Rajasthan
- Known as Ragamala paintings.
- Mainly on life of Krishna and his frolic with gopis.
- In Jodhpur and Nagaur of Rajasthan
- Influenced by Mughal school
- Bold expressions with bold eyes
- Usually depicts Darbar Scenes, horse and elephants.
- A type of Rajasthani painting
- Lyrical beauty in its content
- Love scenes of Radha and Krishna
- In Kotah and Bundi regions
- About court scenes, nobles and lovers
- This School of painting originated either in Mewar of Rajasthan. It is debated.
- The characteristics of this school are:
- Bulging eyes (fish-shaped)
- Pointed nose
- Double chin
- Predominant Chests
- Distorted hands and stiff figure
- Use of bright and gold colors
- Animals and birds represented like toys
- Lack of natural scenes
- Decorated margins
- Although painting is treated as against Islam, it spread and developed under the Mughals and a new combination of Indo-Persian style developed under them. These paintings also had Buddhist and central Asian and Mongoloid influences.
- The Characteristics of School are:
- use of brilliant colors
- variety of themes
- Accuracy in line drawing
- Details and intricacies
- In hill areas of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. Main theme is love
- Basohil – famous for primitive vigour and fierce vitality, bold lines and brilliant hot colors.
- Guler – lyrical and cool depiction of women in the absence of their lovers
- Kangra – fine and melodious lines with female figures depicting delicate graces of feminism
- Developed in kangra, Kullu, Chamba and Mandi region of Himachal Pradesh.
- Subjects of Painting are Gita Govindha, Baghwata Purana, Satsai of Biharilal and Nal Damyanti.
- Consists of Bijapuri and Golconda court Paintings.
- Inspired by Mughal School
- Potrays royal taste in fruits, scented flowers and pets.
- Famous for its Glass painting
- Themes related to Vishnu, Shiva and Krishna
- Paintings made on Jackwood pasted with unbleached cloth.
- Paintings developed in southern Karnataka.
- Major themes are the depiction of Hindu gods and goddesses.
- In this paintings ‘gesso paste’ is used which is mixture Zinc oxide and Arabic gum
- Developed in Mithila region of Bihar.
- Common themes are religious motifs of the Hindus, including Krishna, Rama, Durga, Lakshmi and Shiva.
- Flowers, trees, animals, symbols, etc are used to fill any gaps in the paintings
- Traditionally, these were painted on walls using rice paste and vegetable colors on a base of cow dung and mud.
- It is a traditional painting of Odisha
- Painted on cloth
- The themes of these paintings are Jagannath and Vaishnava cult, sometimes from Shakti and Shaiva cults.
- Raghurajpur on Odisha is known for this art form.
- Pattachitra on palm leaf is known as talapattachitra.
- This art developed in Bengal
- Traditionally these were painted on cloth and told regions stories.
- These paintings are done on pats or scrolls.
- Gujarat tribal paintings
- Developed in Kolkata in 19th Century
- Water colors were used
- The Paintings depicted religious note, especially Hindu Gods and Goddesses.
- Developed in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu
- Kalam made of sharp pointed Bamboo, the base is cotton fabric while the colors used are vegetable dyes.
- The Paintings depicts hindu mythology also chartwheel, lotus flower, animals and interlacing patterns of flowers and leaves.
- Developed in Jharkhand as scroll painting
- These Paintings are linked to the social and religious customs including giving alms and holding yajnas.
Tanjore Glass Paintings
- Its origin can be traced to the downfall of the Vijayanagar when a group of artist migrated to Mysore and Tanjore. It consists of Pictures of child Krishna and other favourite divinities. It uses vivid colors on glass.